The seeds of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr (Simaroubaceae) are recommended by traditional practitioners for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Aim of the study
To identify the compounds responsible for blood glucose lowering effect and evaluate the acute toxicity of the compounds.
Materials and methods
Extracts, fractions and subfractions were administered to normoglycemic mice and the blood glucose concentration was monitored for 8 h. Bioactive compounds isolated through column chromatography were administered to normoglycemic mice and streptozotocin (STZ) rats with monitoring of blood glucose concentration at 0–8 h. The acute toxicity was evaluated in mice.
Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of bruceines E (1) and D (2). Normoglycemic mice administered with 1 mg/kg of 1 and 2 exhibited significant blood glucose concentration reduction of 40.07 ± 11.45% and 48.82 ± 13.34%, respectively. STZ induced diabetic rats administered with 1 and 2 exhibited significant blood glucose concentration reduction of 73.57 ± 13.64% and 87.99 ± 2.91%, respectively.
The reduction of blood glucose concentration by both bruceines was comparable to glibenclamide and they might act as an insulin secretagogue. The presence of a hydroxyl moiety at C2 in 1 reduced the toxic effect by 9-fold compared to 2.