Jatropha curcas L is a multipurpose shrub and a member of the family Euphorbeaceae with several attributes and considerable potential. The present review article discussed the reported recent research on the cultivation and utilization of various parts of jatropha plant for different applications. J. curcas L is a tropical plant that can be grown in marginal lands of low to high rainfall areas and can be used as a commercial crop. The plant can be used to prevent and/or control erosion, to reclaim land, grown as a live fence to protect agricultural fields from farm animals and can be planted as an alternate commercial crop. The plant produces many useful products, especially the seed, from which oil can be extracted; this oil can be used as a feed stock for biodiesel. The extracted oil can also be used for making soap, glue, dye, etc. The leaves, shoot latex, roots and seed oil has medicinal properties. The fruit exocarp (coat), seed shell and processed seed cake are rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and can be used as fertilizer. It could provide employment, save foreign exchanges, improve environment and develop the socio-economic status of poor resource farmers in developing countries. Much more research is required about management of J. curcas as to know more about the potential of its products.